Olmec Cave Paintings found with skulls date more than 10,000 years.
The costumes and rituals shown in rock art survived in Terra del Fuego
Olmec Cave paintings found here with the African skulls provided the first clue to the existence of the first Americans being a much more ancient civilization than previously assumed by historians. The costumes and rituals shown in rock art survived in Terra del Fuego show images of giant armadillos, which died out before the last ice age. The skulls dug from a depth equivalent to 9,000 to 12,000 years ago are very different than the Indians that greeted Christopher Columbus. Walter Neves, an archaeologist from the University of Sao Paolo, has taken extensive skull measurements from dozens of skulls, including the oldest, a young woman who has been named Lucia. "The measurements show that Lucia was anything but mongoloid," he says.
Walter Neves says the negroid people disappear 7,000 years ago But if the first Americans had drifted from Australia, where are their descendants now? Again, the skulls suggest an answer. The shape of the skulls changes between 9,000 and 7,000 years ago from being exclusively negroid to exclusively mongoloid. Combined with rock art evidence of increasing violence at this time, it appears that the mongoloid people from the north invaded and wiped out the original Americans.
Fuegean Cristina Calderon may be one of the few surviving descendants of the first Americans The only evidence of any survivors comes from Terra del Fuego, the islands at the remotest southern tip of South America. The pre-European Fuegeans, who lived stone age-style lives until this century, show hybrid skull features which could have resulted from intermarrying between mongoloid and negroid peoples. Their rituals and traditions also bear some resemblance to the ancient rock art in Brazil. The identity of the first Americans is an emotive and controversial question. But the evidence from Brazil, and a handful of people who still live at the very tip of South America, suggests that the Americas have been home to a greater diversity of humans than previously thought - and for much longer.
Olmecs Are the First Human Civilization to Understand and use the Number Zero
The back of Stela C from Tres Zapotes This is the second oldest Long Count date yet discovered. The numerals 22.214.171.124.18 translate to September 3, 32 BCE (Julian). The glyphs surrounding the date are one of the few surviving examples of Epi-Olmec script.[59